02 Accounting policies

The consolidated financial statements (except with respect to certain financial instruments) have been drawn up under the historical cost convention. The fiscal year-end for the financial statements of all Group companies is December 31. These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with Swiss stock corporation law and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). All IFRS in force at the balance sheet date and all interpretations (IFRIC) of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) were applied. Comet did not early-adopt new standards and interpretations unless specifically stated. The significant accounting policies applied are unchanged from the prior year except as set out below.

As a result of rounding and the presentation in thousands of Swiss francs, individual numbers in the consolidated financial statements may not sum precisely to the totals indicated.

02.1 Changes in accounting policies

Revised and new accounting rules

With effect from January 1, 2022, Comet has applied the following new or adjusted IFRS/IFRIC for the first time:

On May 28, 2020, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published an amendment to IFRS 16 concerning COVID-19-relat­ed rent concessions. The amendment was effective from June 1, 2020 and initially applied to rent concessions granted up to and including June 30, 2021. On March 31, 2021, the IASB published an additional amendment to extend the applicability period to cover grant dates up to and including June 30, 2022. Comet applies this practical expedient. However, in the year under review this had no impact on the consolidated financial statements (prior period: nil).

The new or amended standards and interpretations had no material effect on the Group’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

02.2 New accounting rules becoming effective in subsequent periods






Expected impact

Effective date

Planned adoption by Comet

IAS 1 – Presentation of Financial Statements: Disclosure of Accounting Policies (Amendments to IAS 1 and IFRS Practice Statement 2)


Jan. 1, 2023

Fiscal year 2023

IAS 8 – Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors: Definition of Accounting Estimates (Amendments to IAS 8)


Jan. 1, 2023

Fiscal year 2023

IAS 12 – Income Taxes: Deferred Tax Related to Assets and Liabilities Arising from a Single Transaction (Amendments to IAS 12)


Jan. 1, 2023

Fiscal year 2023

IAS 1 – Presentation of Financial Statements: Classification of Liabilities as Current or Non-current (Amendments to IAS 1)


Jan. 1, 2024

Fiscal year 2024

IFRS 16 – Lease Liability in a Sale and Leaseback (Amendments to IFRS 16)


Jan. 1, 2024

Fiscal year 2024

IAS 1 – Non-current Liabilities with Covenants (Amendments to IAS 1)


Jan. 1, 2024

Fiscal year 2024

* Expected to have no, or no significant, impact on the financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

02.3 Correction in the presentation of contract assets and contract liabilities

As part of a review of the finance processes, Comet challenged the presentation of contract assets and contract liabilities and concluded that prepayments from clients in contract liabilities should have been netted with already invoiced contract assets in “trade and other receivables”. The adjustment amounts to CHF 8.1 million in prior year. 

The prior-year comparatives have been restated as shown below. These restatements have no effect on net loss/income.








In thousands of CHF


Dec. 31, 2022

Dec. 31, 2021 - Restated



Dec. 31, 2021 - Reported








Trade and other receivables







Total current assets







Total assets














Liabilities and shareholders' equity







Contract liabilities







Total current liabilities







Total liabilities







Total equity attributable to shareholders of Comet Holding AG






Total equity attributable to shareholders of Comet Holding AG in %







Total liabilities and shareholders' equity







Interim Report 2022

The Board of Directors of Comet also approved retrospective restatements in the Interim Report 2022 Comet issued on July 12, 2022. The adjustment of trade and other receivables and contract liabilities amounted to CHF 4.2 million. These restatements have no effect on net loss/income.

02.4 Estimates

Comet’s consolidated financial statements contain assumptions and estimates that affect the reported financial position, results of operations and cash flows. These assumptions and estimates were made on the basis of management’s best knowledge at the time of preparation of the accounts. Actual results may differ from the values presented. The following estimates have the greatest effects on the consolidated financial statements:

Business environment, including impacts of COVID-19

Driven by the digitalization of society, the underlying long-term demand for semiconductor chips, and thus for products of the PCT division (vacuum capacitors and RF impedance matching networks), continues to be strong. In 2022, the x-ray divisions, IXM and IXS, benefited again from robust demand in their primary end markets: semiconductor & electronics, automotive, aerospace and security. Although the economic environment deteriorated toward the end of the year and is likely to weigh on business performance in the short term, robust growth is expected in our markets and – thus for Comet – in the medium to long term.

With respect to on-going uncertainties (for example, potential supply chain issues) and geopolitical tensions, Comet critically reviewed the assumptions and estimates that affect the financial position, results of operations and cash flows. In this review, no relevant changes were identified that would have a material impact on these financial statements.

Comet received no pandemic-related government support in fiscal year 2022 (prior year: nil).

02.5 Consolidation

02.5.1 Basis of consolidation

In 2022, there were no changes in the basis of consolidation from the prior year.

The consolidated financial statements thus comprise the accounts of the companies listed below:







Registered office

Equity interest and voting rights in %






Comet Holding AG

Flamatt, Switzerland




Comet AG

Flamatt, Switzerland




Comet Electronics (Shanghai) Co. Ltd.

Shanghai, China




Comet Mechanical Equipment (Shanghai) Co. Ltd.

Shanghai, China




Comet Technologies USA, Inc.

Shelton, CT, USA




Comet Technologies Korea Co. Ltd.

Suwon, Korea




Comet Yxlon GmbH 1

Hamburg, Germany




Comet Technologies Denmark A/S

Taastrup, Denmark




Comet Technologies Japan KK

Yokohama, Japan




Yxlon (Beijing) X-Ray Equipment Trading Co. Ltd.

Beijing, China




Comet Technologies Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

Penang, Malaysia




Object Research Systems (ORS) Inc.

Montreal, Canada




Comet Solutions Taiwan Ltd.

Hsinchu County, Taiwan




1 The company was renamed “Comet Yxlon GmbH” from “Yxlon International GmbH”.

02.5.2 Method of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements represent the aggregation of the annual accounts of the individual Group companies, which are prepared using uniform accounting principles. Those companies controlled by Comet Holding AG are fully consolidated. This means that these companies’ assets, liabilities, equity, expenses and income are entirely included in the consolidated financial statements. All intragroup balances and transactions, unrealized gains and losses resulting from intragroup transactions, and dividends are eliminated in full.

Acquisitions and goodwill

Companies are consolidated from the date on which effective control passes to the Group. Consolidation ends only when effective control ceases. On acquisition, the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities are measured at fair value and included in the accounts using the acquisition method. For acquisitions, intangible assets that arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from the business entity, and whose fair value can be measured reliably, are reported separately. Goodwill, being the excess of the aggregate consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets of the acquired subsidiary, is initially measured at cost. If the aggregate consideration transferred is lower than the fair value of the acquired net assets, the difference is recognized as negative goodwill in other operating income at the acquisition date. Goodwill and other intangible assets are allocated on acquisition to those cash generating units expected to benefit from the acquisition or to generate future cash flows as a result of it. When Group companies are sold, the difference between their sale price and their net assets, plus accumulated currency translation differences, is recognized as operating income in the consolidated statement of income.

Foreign currency translation

The functional currency of the Group companies is the respective national currency. Transactions in a currency other than the functional currency are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at the transaction date. Financial assets and liabilities are translated at the balance sheet date at the exchange rate as of that date; the resulting currency translation differences are reported in the income statement. The consolidated financial statements are presented in Swiss francs. The financial statements of the Group companies are translated at the average exchange rates for the year (the “average rate” in the table below) for the income statement and at year-end rates (the “closing rate”) for the balance sheet. The resulting currency translation differences are recognized in other comprehensive income. Currency translation differences from intragroup loans for the long-term financing of Group companies are partly recognized in other comprehensive income, to the extent that repayment is neither planned nor is likely to occur in the foreseeable future.

The exchange rates used to translate the most important currencies are listed below:














Closing rate


Average rate











Country or region



Dec. 31, 2022


Dec. 31, 2021























































Republic of Korea








































02.6 Measurement and recognition policies

Revenue recognition (sales and other income)

Net sales represent the revenue from the sale of goods and services to third parties, net of rebates and other price reductions. The Group’s revenue is derived from the sale of goods (including spare parts) by the PCT and IXM divisions and the sale of systems (including services such as installation) by the IXS division. Revenue from the sale of goods, including spare parts, systems and system-related services, is as a rule recognized on the basis of a single performance obligation, which is satisfied at a specific point in time. The performance obligation is satisfied, and the revenue recognized, when the customer acquires control of the product or service. In the sale of goods that are not systems, the transfer of control generally occurs at the time of delivery. Performance obligations for system sales (including for installation) are fulfilled at the time of acceptance by the customer. In connection with both non-system goods and with systems, Comet also offers services. Warranty obligations for providing an additional service to the customer (service-type warranties), such as an extension of the warranty period, are separate performance obligations and the revenue associated with them is recognized over time. For general maintenance services and defect correction intended to ensure that the delivered good is, or performs, as specified in the contract (assurance-type warranties), the estimated cost of the liability is recognized as a provision in accordance with IAS 37.

Customer contributions to development projects and payments for the delivery of the respective first prototype are recorded in other operating income; subsequent deliveries of prototypes are reported as sales.

Variable price elements (variable consideration) exist both in retroactive rebates when the quantity of products purchased exceeds a certain threshold in the calendar year, and in individual discounts on products. The amount of the rebate is estimated using the most-likely-amount method and as a rule is allocated proportionately to all performance obligations under the contract.

Sales commissions owed for agent activities are capitalized at contract inception as incremental costs attributable to obtaining a contract and a liability of equal amount is recognized for sales commissions. Their recognition as an expense occurs as soon as Comet has transferred control of the products to the customer. In principle, no interest effect is recognized for contract liabilities and prepayments by customers, as the period between the time of transfer of a promised good or service to the customer and the time of payment is not more than one year.

Cash and cash equivalents

In addition to cash on hand and balances in checking accounts at banks, cash and cash equivalents include short-term highly liquid cash investments and time deposits with original maturities of up to three months. Time deposits and similar instruments with original maturities of more than three months, but less than twelve months, are classified as other current financial assets.

Trade and other receivables and contract assets

Trade receivables, other receivables and contract assets are reported at their face value less any necessary impairment charges. Comet provides for impairment using the simplified approach by recognizing an allowance in the amount of the losses expected over the remaining life of the instruments (known as the expected credit loss model). For specific doubtful arrears with objective indications of impairment, impairment charges are applied individually.

Whether a receivable or a contract asset is recognized is governed by whether the right to consideration is unconditional (leading to recognition of a receivable) or conditional (leading to recognition of a contract asset).

Financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets and liabilities are initially measured at fair value (market value), including transaction costs, except in the case of financial assets categorized as at fair value through profit or loss, for which transaction costs are recorded directly in financing expenses. All purchases and sales of financial assets are recognized at the transaction date.

Fair value is determined based on quoted or other market prices. In the fiscal year as in the prior year, no hedge accounting under IFRS 9 or IAS 39 was applied to any hedging transactions. Financial assets are recognized as soon as Comet acquires control of them, and derecognized when it ceases to have control, i.e., when it has sold the rights or they have lapsed. Financial liabilities are derecognized when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or is canceled or expires.


Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value represents the estimated normal sale price less the costs of completion, marketing, selling and distribution. Raw materials and purchased products are measured using the weighted-average method; internally produced goods are measured at standard costs. Inventories include proportionate shares of production overheads.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Borrowing costs related to qualifying assets form part of the historical cost. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the assets. The expense for depreciation of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the income statement under that expense category which corresponds to the function of the particular asset in the Group. Land values are not depreciated. Impairment charges are recognized as a separate line item under accumulated depreciation and impairment. Maintenance costs are recognized as assets only if the maintenance extends the expected life of the asset, expands production capacity or otherwise increases asset values. The costs of maintenance and repair that do not increase asset values are charged directly to income. The following estimated useful lives are applied in determining depreciation:




20 – 40 years

Plant and equipment

6 – 10 years

Other tangible assets

3 – 10 years

Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities

As a lessee, Comet recognizes leases on the basis of a right-of-use model. At the inception of every contract, Comet assesses whether it includes a lease, separating lease components from non-lease components. No assets and liabilities are recognized for leases with a term of one year or less and for leases of low-value assets (with a value when new of less than CHF 5,000); the expenses for these are recognized directly in the income statement. The initial measurement of the right of use for a leased asset is made by calculating the present value of the lease payments, plus initial direct costs, plus estimated costs for dismantling, removal and restoration, less lease incentives received. The lease liabilities correspond to the present value of the discounted payment obligations. For discounting the lease payments, Comet uses the interest rate implicit in the lease. In doing so, the currency area in which the leased asset is located and the Comet-specific credit risk are taken into account. Comet primarily has leases with fixed payments, which includes leases with rent-free periods and ones with rising payments. Leases with variable payments are immaterial.

Comet’s leases may include renewal options. These are included in the calculations only if, taking into account all significant determining factors, they are considered highly likely to be exercised. For indefinite leases, the following principles apply (the extension periods cited are from the lease inception or from the expiry of the minimum lease term):




Maximum extension

Buildings and warehouses

3 years

Plant and equipment

2 years

Vehicles and other tangible assets

1 year

In the event of a material modification, Comet remeasures the lease liability at the date of the change. Adjustments to the lease liability are deducted from or added to the corresponding right-of-use asset. Any difference remaining upon early termination of a lease is recognized through profit or loss. 

Where Comet is the lessor, the lease is accounted for either as an operating or a finance lease, depending on its terms.

Intangible assets

The intangible assets recognized are goodwill, rights to trademarks and names, customer lists, technology, licenses, patents, and software. Intangible assets are recognized at cost and generally amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful life. Goodwill and acquired rights to trademarks and names are not amortized but are tested annually for impairment (see section “Impairment of non-current assets”). The expense for amortization of intangible assets with finite useful lives is recognized in the income statement under that expense category which corresponds to the function of the particular asset in the Group. The following estimated useful lives are generally applied in determining amortization:



Customer lists

10 – 15 years


5 – 10 years

Computer software

3 – 5 years


Provisions are recognized only where Comet has a present obligation to a third party arising from a past event and the amount of the obligation can be estimated reliably. No provisions are recognized for possible losses that may result from future events.

Provisions are classified as current to the extent that the related cash outflows are expected to occur within one year from the balance sheet date. Conversely, the cash outflows in respect of non-current provisions are expected to occur more than twelve months after the balance sheet date. If the interest effect is material, the cash outflows are discounted.

Post-employment benefits

Comet maintains post-employment benefit plans for its employees which differ according to the local circumstances of the individual Group companies. The benefit plans are financed by contributions to benefit arrangements that are separate legal entities (foundations or insurance companies) or by the accumulation of reserves in the balance sheet of the respective Group company. In the case of defined contribution plans or economically equivalent arrangements, the expenses accrued in the reporting period represent the agreed contributions of the Group company. For defined benefit plans, the service costs and the present value of the defined benefit obligation are calculated in actuarial valuations by independent experts, using the projected unit credit method. The calculations are updated annually. The surplus or deficit recognized in the balance sheet is equal to the present value of the defined benefit obligation as determined by the actuary, less the fair value of plan assets. Any resulting net surplus is recognized as an asset only to the extent of the potential economic benefit that may be realized from this asset in the future, taking into consideration IFRIC 14. The expense charged to income is the actuarially determined service cost plus the net interest cost. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in other comprehensive income. They comprise experience adjustments (the effects of differences between the previous actuarial assumptions and the observed outcomes) and the effects of changes in actuarial assumptions (particularly regarding the discount rate and life expectancy).

Length-of-service awards

Comet grants length-of-service awards to its employees after a certain number of years of service, in the form of lump-sum payments that increase in amount with the number of years of employment. Comet calculates the resulting obligation using the projected unit credit method. The calculation is updated annually. Any actuarial gains or losses from the remeasurement are immediately taken to income.

Share-based payments

Part of the variable compensation of the members of the Executive Committee under the short-term incentive plan (STIP), and part of the fixed compensation of the Board of Directors, is paid in stock. In addition, the Executive Committee is granted stock under a long-term incentive plan (LTIP). The expense is recognized at the value of the stock earned, measured at the quoted market price (fair value) at the grant date. The amount accrued for those components of compensation which must be equity-settled (i.e., for which there is no option of cash payment) is recognized directly in equity. For components which the beneficiary can choose to receive in equity or in cash, the value of the option which this choice represents is determined and recognized as an increase in equity, while the rest of the obligation is recorded as a liability.

Income tax

The income tax expense for the reporting period is composed of current taxes and deferred taxes.

Current taxes

Current tax liabilities and assets for the current period and prior reporting periods are recognized based on the amount expected to be payable to or refunded by the tax authorities. They are calculated based on the tax regulations and tax rates in effect at the balance sheet date.

Deferred taxes

Deferred taxes are accounted for by the liability method. Under this approach, the income tax effects of temporary differences between the tax bases and the values used in the consolidated financial statements are recorded as non-current liabilities or non-current assets. Deferred taxes are calculated at actual or expected local tax rates. Changes in deferred taxes are included in income tax expense in the income statement, except for deferred taxes in respect of items that are recognized outside profit or loss. These latter deferred taxes are likewise recognized outside profit or loss; according to the underlying accountable event, they are recognized either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized on all taxable temporary differences except for goodwill. Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carryforward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carryforward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized, except:

Impairment of non-current assets

The value of property, plant and equipment and other non-current assets, including intangibles, is reviewed whenever it appears possible, as a result of changed circumstances or events, that the assets’ carrying amount represents an overvaluation. In addition, Comet evaluates at year-end whether there are any indications of impairment of non-financial assets. Intangible assets that are in the process of being generated are tested for impairment annually. If the carrying amount exceeds the amount recoverable through use or sale of the asset, the carrying amount is reduced to this recoverable amount and the difference is recorded as an impairment charge in the income statement. The recoverable amount is the higher of realizable value or value in use. Value in use is determined on the basis of discounted expected future cash flows. Any acquired goodwill and any rights to trademarks or names with an indefinite useful life are not amortized but are reviewed annually at the same date for impairment. This impairment test is based on the results for the fiscal year, the rolling multi-quarter forecast and the rolling multi-year plan.